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Kerb Kerb
A stone edging to a path or specific area of ground. Many graves have kerbs around them, some of which may bear inscriptions.

Left, the grave of LBdr C E Stone VC MM at Belper Cemetery is surrounded by white marble kerbs which bear his inscription and a memorial to Sgt A E Stone.
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Lancet Lancet
A tall narrow window or light with a pointed arch at the top. The term also refers to the arch itself.

Left, the memorial window at St Peter's Church, Belper comprises three lancet lights. The two vertical stone columns between the centre light and the two side lights are the mullions.
 Lapis Lazuli
A bright blue coloured rock, or the ground particles from it used as a pigment. The rock is a form of limestone with additional minerals but has been modified by extreme heat or pressure.
Latin cross Latin cross
(Also known as a long cross or a passion cross.) A cross, generally unembellished, in which the lower limb, or shaft, is longer than the other three.

Left, a plain latin cross on the memorial to Pte J J Johnson in Nottingham Road Cemetery, Chaddesden
An abbreviation for Lance Bombardier, a rank in some artillery regiments of the British Army and equivalent to lance corporal. (It is pronounced lance-bommer-dear.)
Ledger Ledger
A flat stone slab on the surface of a grave, often bearing a memorial inscription.

Left, a ledger (one of several in a row) on a family grave in Charlesworth Independent Chapel graveyard, which is also a war memorial to Raymond Clarkson.
A compartment of a window outlined by the mullions. See the above illustration for the lancet.
Limestone is a type of rock formed from the skeletons or shells of creatures that lived in the water. Limestone is often white or pale grey and, because it is reasonably easy to work, it is commonly used in the construction of monuments, and in tablets. It is often finely grained but sometimes shell or bone fragments may be visible. Because it is formed from lime it can be disolved by acid so some soft versions may be eroded by rainfall, especially acid rain.
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Marble Marble
Geologists use the term marble to refer to limestone that has been restructured as a result of great heat or pressure; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to include ordinary limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material and in its white form it is often used in gravestones and tablets.

Left, a detail of the white marble memorial in All Saints' Church, Ockbrook.
The international abbreviation for millimetre and the standard unit of length in the construction industry.
Monolith Monolithic
Many memorials are made of several separate components attached together, but a memorial, or at least a major component, that is formed from a single block of stone is said to be monolithic.

Left, the monolithic cross and its shaft at St Mary's Churchyard, Marston on Dove, are made from a single block of sandstone.
monument Monument
A structure, edifice or erection intended to commemorate a notable person, action or event.

Left, the Midland Railway memorial in Derby is one of the county's largest monuments.
A vertical part of the framework of timber panelling. (The horizontal part is a rail.)
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 NGR The National Grid is a reference system used on all Ordnance Survey (OS) maps to identify the position of any feature. The National Grid breaks Great Britain down into progressively smaller squares identified first by letters and then numbers. The squares are defined by a grid of horizontal and vertical straight lines marked on all modern OS maps. Further details can be found the OS website.
Nowy headed Nowy headed
Plaques and tablets are often described as being nowy headed. It indicates that they have a projection, usually curved, at the middle of the top edge.

Left, a nowy headed tablet in Derby Cathedral.
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Obelisk Obelisk
A tapering pillar, square in section and ending with a small pyramid at the top.

Left, the obelisk at St Helen's House, Derby
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Patonce Cross Patonce Cross
A heraldic term to describe a cross on which the limbs are splayed into three points. It is known as a fleur-de-lis cross by monumental masons. Left, this patonce cross surmounts the war memorial at Morley.
Pedestal Pedestal
A block forming a support underneath a column, statue or other feature.

Left, this octagonal pedestal at Clay Cross surmounts a stepped base and supports the cross.
Pediment Pediment
Originally a formalised low pitched gable on a classical temple but widely used as a decoration over doors and windows and on the tops of various memorials including tablets and boards. There are many variations of the style.

Left, this triangular wooden pediment surmounts the memorial at County Hall, Matlock.
Pilaster Pilaster
A shallow pier of rectangular cross section generally embedded into the face of a structure, or, in classical styles, a flat representation of a column in shallow relief against a wall.

Left, pilsters flank the inscription on this headstone containing a memorial to 2Lt E H Wildgoose in St Giles's Churchyard, Old Matlock.
A finish applied to any sheet metal, but especially copper, in which the material is beaten with a planishing hammer against an anvil or planishing dolly. The technique can be used to smooth out mis-shapen metal, to introduce shaping or to create a decorative hammered pattern, depending on the shapes of the hammer and dolly.
A detached vertical slender structure, of any shape in section though often square or rectangular.
Plaque Plaque
A panel bearing an inscription, decoration or both and made of any material except stone or wood. Most plaques are made of metal.

Left, a memorial plaque in St John the Baptist's Churchyard, Tideswell.
Plinth Plinth
Originally a band of thicker brickwork at the base of a wall or column to provide extra strength. The top edge was usually chamfered or moulded back to the standard wall thickness. By extension the word is also used for any construction layer at or below the base to spread the load and often comprises an independant course of stonework projecting some distance from the main structure.

Left, this memorial at Crich has a plinth with a bevelled top.
Potent Cross Potent Cross
A heraldic term for a cross in which the the limbs end in cross bars or crutches.

Left, a potent cross on the memorial at Whitwell.
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